I just had a case where my Visual Studio 2013 solution failed to build even though no errors were displayed in the output pane or the log. The same happened for all the other targets (Clean Solution etc.). Building from the command line using msbuild directly, on the other hand, worked fine. The solution (as in previous VS versions) was to delete the user-specific settings. So a quick:
del /s /q *.user
fixed the problem for me.